The Kingdom of Norway is a Scandinavian country in northern Europe, on the North Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, sharing borders with Finland, Sweden and Russia.
The country is a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with a stable economy, with the fourth highest per capita income in the world. This is boosted by an abundance of natural resources, including oil and gas reserves, which are strictly regulated by the government. It has a thriving private sector, a large state sector an extensive welfare system, and is the world’s second largest exporter of fish, after China. Following a public referendum in 1994, Norway opted out of the EU, but remains part of the European Economic Area, and still contributes to the EU budget.
Norway’s terrain is approximately two-thirds mountains, broken by fertile plains and border by one of the longest and most rugged coastlines in the world, which is indented by fjords and glaciers. There is arctic tundra in the north and most Norwegians live in the south where the climate is milder and there is better connectivity to mainland Europe. The country’s four largest urban areas are the capital, Oslo, Bergen, Stavanger/Sandnes and Trondheim.